Sociological analysis of article

Ibn Khaldun statue in TunisTunisia — Sociological reasoning predates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the common stock of Western knowledge and philosophyand has been carried out from as far back as the time of ancient Greek philosopher Platoif not before.

Sociological analysis of article

See Article History Organizational analysis, in management sciencethe study of the processes that characterize all kinds of organizations, including business firms, government agencies, labour unions, and voluntary associations such as sports clubs, charities, and political parties.

Any organization is a social unit with three properties: Modern cultures are marked by an increase in the importance, influence, and power of organizations. Consequently, contemporary studies in social science and management have emphasized the analysis of organizations.

Yet much of the research is narrowly focused on the properties associated with particular types of organizations, such as hospitals, prisons, government agencies, businesses, schools, and churches. While many of its findings are associated with business management, the field of organizational analysis is far more general: One goal of such inquiry is the identification of more-effective management strategies.

See also business organization. Origins of the discipline Contemporary organizational analysis and management science owe much of their early development to the German sociologist Max Weber —who originated the scientific study of organizations.

In work examining the relationship between bureaucracy and modernization eventually published as Theory of Social and Economic Organization;Weber attributed the rise of organizations to the expansion of marketsto developments in the law, and especially to changes in the nature of authority.

The term authority applies to situations in which one person willingly accepts the direction of another. Until modern times, authority was inherited, meaning that princes begat princes and peasants begat peasants.

He documented the ways in which this development, which he called rationalization, underlay the rise of the modern state bureaucracy. According to Weber, organizations were able to develop unparalleled calculability and efficiency by combining two structures: The latter structure gave rise to the modern bureaucrat—a person who was required to be an expert in the relevant rules and who had to be shielded from inappropriate influences to guarantee fairness and objectivity.

Sociological analysis of article

This shift away from tradition and inheritance permanently changed the nature of organizations. Weber thought that these two structures would cause organizations to follow, invariably and automatically, the objectives set down by political authorities.

The essential point of the Weber-Michels debate has not been settled; questions persist over the degree to which the pursuit of official goals characterizes organizational action.

How to Write a Sociological Analysis

Does the creation of organizations such as churches, investment syndicates, or human rights groups for the achievement of some collective goal subtly shape the agendas that will be pursued? This question—whether official or personal leadership is more influential—has considerable practical significance, because social movements such as pacifism and environmentalism almost always take shape as organizational structures in contemporary societies.


Organizational analysis identifies ways in which the personal goals of these groups inform their respective organizational structures. While German scholars were examining the rise of modern organizations within a broad sociological perspective, American engineers and management consultants were initiating the study of the management of work in industrial settings.

These findings led researchers to identify and describe patterns of informal organization. Their investigations, which have become part of the core literature of organizational analysis, demonstrated unequivocally that participation in organizations is influenced strongly by social ties and by unofficial networks of communication.

Theoretical developments As organizational analysis developed into a distinct field of inquiry in the late s, research in the United States progressed in two theoretical directions. One became known as the Carnegie School, because its central figures, the American social scientists Herbert A.

Simon and James G. Their research, published in Organizationsapplied general principles of behavioral science to action within organizations, acknowledging that, while humans intend to be rational in their decision makingactual conditions impose a certain amount of subjectivity.

The Carnegie approach defined the central problem of organizations as managing the uncertainties inherent in complex work. The work of Simon and March set the agenda for subsequent research on organizational learning and, more specifically, on the relationship between learning and the adaptability of organizations.

The second theoretical approach, known as institutionalismfocused on the organization as a whole. The American sociologist and legal scholar Philip Selznick, like Michels, emphasized the nonrational aspects of organizations.Sociological analysis of documents is usually described as content analysis and there are a number of ways in which this type of analysis may be undertaken.

Some sociologists use formal content analysis where a number of different texts on a given subject are used.

Sociological analysis papers are unique because you cannot make interpretations on your own. You must apply a sociological theory like Functionalism, Conflict Theory or Symbolic Interactionism to the subject and show how that theory explains the topic. Writing a sociological analysis – things to consider What is expected from you? You have to observe a given process, in most cases it is required to have some . Quantitative analysis is the study of society using numbers and statistics: for example, considering people’s income (a number of dollars, say) in light of their education (a grade level, or a number of years).

Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order, acceptance, and change or social sociologists aim to conduct research that may be applied directly to.

Become a member of the BSA!. The BSA is the largest sociological network in the UK. Membership of the BSA is open to everyone interested in the study of society from a sociological perspective.

Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis [Ludwig von Mises] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The cover is from a Greek portrayal of the reality of war -- a fitting portrayal too of life under socialism. Writing a sociological analysis – things to consider What is expected from you?

You have to observe a given process, in most cases it is required to have some . Through an analysis of the , , , and Current Population Surveys as well as the through General Social Surveys, this article investigates class differences and patterns of voter turnout for the last four U.S.

presidential elections.

Articles | Sociological Science