The orbital frontal cortex is a region of the frontal cortex which is involved in cognitive processes such as decision making.
One of them MUST be the functioning of neurotransmitters the "Dopamine Hypothesis"so you need to know this in detail and the Exam could ask your Outline and evaluate the biological explanation about neurotransmitters.
The Specification also mentions genes and mental health, so the second explanation here is a genetic one. You are also expected to understand a biological treatment for schizophrenia which is linked to these explanations.
They bind themselves to receptors on the next neuron and pass in their message in the form of a small electric charge. Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter that regulates mood and attention.
It seems to be linked to schizophrenia in a number of ways. The Dopamine Hypothesis was proposed by Arvid Carlsson and suggests that schizophrenia is caused by too much dopamine - or too many dopamine receptors - in key areas of the brain.
Dopamine systems in the mesolimbic pathway may contribute to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations. Dopamine function in the mesocortical pathway may be responsible for the negative symptomssuch as avolition lack of motivation and alogia inability to speak. Carlsson discovered that giving L-Dopa to animals reduced their Parkinsons-like symptoms; L-dopa also reduced Parkinsons symptoms in humans but gave them psychotic symptoms that were similar to schizophrenia.
Drugs like LSD, which are known to increase dopamine activity, also trigger schizophrenic symptoms in healthy people and exaggerate the positive symptoms of those with the disorder. Antipsychotic drugs like phenothiazines PTZ reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia and work by blocking dopamine receptors.
The contemporary study into schizophrenia by Carlsson et al. According to the genetic hypothesis, the more closely-related the family member to the person with schizophrenia, the greater their chance of developing the disorder.
However, a recent study has narrowed down this search. They identified a gene called complement component 4 C4which is part of the immune system. Genetic analysis of 65, people found that those who had particular forms of the C4 gene showed higher risk of developing schizophrenia. Short introduction to the C4 gene The human brain normally undergoes synapse pruning during adolescence.
C4 plays a role in pruning synapses but excessive pruning could lead to the symptoms seen in schizophrenia. Test mice with increased levels of C4 activity lost more brain cells as they matured. This would explain why schizophrenia symptoms appear after adolescence and why the brains of people with schizophrenia have a thinner cerebral cortex with fewer synapses than healthy brains.
The main role of C4 is to "mark" infections so that they are attacked by the immune system. It seems as if, when it is over-active, C4 actually damages the brain it is meant to protect. It alerts them that they are at higher risk of developing the disorder themselves.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to thought (thinking). Thought (also called thinking) – the mental process in which beings form psychological associations and models of the world. Thinking is manipulating information, as when we form concepts, engage in problem solving, reason and make schwenkreis.comt, the act of thinking, produces thoughts. Outline and evaluate a biological explanation of addiction (24 marks) 8 AO1 marks. There is a choice as to which area of biological explanations to base an answer on. To access the updated Vendor Information Pages(VIP) you must select one of the options available through AccessVA Login: Veteran Small Business Owners: DS Login: Veterans (including Veterans Small Business Owners (Veteran Owned Small Business (VOSB) or Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business (SDVOSB) or their business representatives who are also Veterans.
Based on this information, they could avoid stressful occupations or drug use that might trigger the condition. If the symptoms of schizophrenia are recognised early enough before a psychotic episode occursthen the disorder can be managed much more effectively.
Understanding the link between schizophrenia and dopamine has led to the development of effective antipsychotic drugslike phenothiazines PTZwhich block dopamine receptors and reduce positive symptoms.
These drugs only deal with positive symptoms and have nasty side-effects of their own. However, this sort of cure is still a long way in the future. Because synaptic pruning is in fact a good thing that healthy brains do as part of the learning process, we must be very careful about interfering with this process.
This is because schizophrenia is more common in people who are related to schizophrenics than in the general population. Research into the C4 gene suggests the mechanism that may be at work. Excessive synaptic pruning would explain why the symptoms of schizophrenia appear after adolescence and why the brains of people with schizophrenia appear to "shrink" with a thinner cerebral cortex.
The dopamine hypothesis is backed up by the effects of drugs which boost dopamine activity and increase psychotic symptoms or block dopamine receptors reducing psychotic symptoms.
Brain scans and post-mortem examinations of brains also back up the idea that people with schizophrenia have more dopamine receptors in key parts of the brain than healthy people. Objections The biological explanations are not complete explanations.
This suggests that something non-biological is at work too, like the environment a person lives in. Biological evidence is always in the form of an observed correlation and correlations do not show cause. This boils down to whether unusual brain activity excessive dopamine activity, excessive synaptic pruning causes schizophrenia or whether schizophrenia causes unusual brain activity - or whether an unknown third factor is causing the brain activity AND the schizophrenia.
One of the most effective drugs for treating schizophrenia is clopazine which affects serotonin activity. Serotonin is another neurotansmitter linked to mood.
This suggests that other neurotransmitters may cause schizophrenia. This is backed up by the fact that some people with schizophrenia do not respond to dopamine-inhibiting drugs.Outline and evaluate biological explanations for aggression (24) The biological explanation for aggression states that aggression is innate behavior in people and the environment around them does not cause it.
Neurotransmitters in the brain, chemicals that allow impulses to be transmitted from one area to another, can be used to explain why. A Level exam tips Answering exam questions (PSYA3 AQA A specification) Outline and evaluate a biological explanation of addiction (24 marks) 8 AO1 marks.
The biological approach states that psychological abnormality has a physical cause this explanation does not consider the cognitions, learned behaviour or early psychosexual experiences.
McGuffin et al () investigated the genetic component of depression.
Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process. Introduction. State what you are doing in the essay ; This essay will attempt to give a detailed account including reasons or causes of how biological factors may affect the cognitive process of memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD).
The Molecular Repair of the Brain by Ralph C. Merkle; Xerox PARC Coyote Hill Road Palo Alto, CA [email protected] Please see the separate article on Information-Theoretic Death for a more recent treatment of this fundamental concept.. This article was published in two parts in Cryonics magazine, Vol.
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