In it she discusses how the male-dominated field of law actually influences the lack of specific street harassment laws geared to protect women and thus contributes to gender-based discrimination.
Several studies have considered specific combinations of real-life constraints to define the emerging Rich VRP scopes. The proposed approaches are tested for solving some variants of VRPs, namely, first, the deterministic families: An extensive literature review is performed for all these variants, focusing on the main contributions of each work.
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A first approach proposes a biasedrandomization of classical heuristics for solving the deterministic problems addressed here. A second approach is centered on the combination of randomized heuristics with simulation Simheuristics to be applied on the commented stochastic problems.
Finally, a third approach based on the joined work of randomized heuristics with constraint programming is proposed to solve several types of routing problems. The developed heuristic algorithms are tested in several benchmark instances between these, two real-life case studies in Spain are considered and the results obtained are, on average, highly promising and useful for decision makers.
In memory of my father.
To all dreams of latino-american students. Aimer, c est agir Victor Hugo. Angel Juan and Dr. Daniel Riera for their continuous support of my research, for his patience, motivation, enthusiasm, and knowledge.
I could not have imagined having a better advisors and mentors for my Ph. Besides my advisors, I would like to thank to my external advisor: Gracias a toda mi familia y amigos en Venezuela quienes siempre me han brindado incondicionalmente su apoyo y cario.
Use of devotional prayers - One week before the scheduled bible exposition (B.E.) or grand evangelical mission (G.E.M.), the officers are required to do seven days devotional prayers nightly in the chapel. Worcester Telegram, report from late July , newspaper clipping in Taylor scrapbook, Indianapolis Historical Museum. It should be emphasized here the extent to which bicycle racing on the track is a tactical sport, in which advantage is gained from riding in the slipstream of another rider. It featured new forms of economic organization including different kinds of industrial relations, business management, and markets. And the new consumerism depended on different cultural values. Consumer society suggested a life oriented around acts of purchase and a materialistic philosophy.
Mi madre, tias, tios, primos y primas, gracias por siempre estar ah. Gracias a todos mis amigos del voleyball en Panteres Grogues de Barcelona quienes con su dinamismo y espritu entusiasta me han integrado a un espacio lo suficientemente abierto y diverso como para mantener mi mente y cuerpo en sano equilibrio durante mi estada en la ciudad de las grandes obras de Gaud.
Edwin, Gloria, Alfonso, Quentin et Jan, pour toujours me donner de l energie et de la espoir pour suivre ce long parcours.
Summary of abbreviations used on this dissertation. Summary of abbreviations used on this dissertation continuation. Mathematical notation used in this dissertation.
For instance, the EU land transport policy aims at promoting a sustainable mobility that is efficient, safe and with reduced negative effects on the environment Janic, ; Steg and Gifford, ; Whiteing and Stantchev, Several international organizations have developed projects for transportation optimization.
Likely sincethe Inter-American Development Bank has supported for programs to modernize logistical and freight transport systems in several countries of south- and central-america Bate, ; Constance, ; Funez, Road transportation is the predominant way of transporting goods in Europe and in other parts of the world.
Direct costs associated with this type of transportation have increase significantly sinceand more so in recent years due to rising oil prices.
Furthermore, road transportation is intrinsically associated with a good deal of indirect or external costs, which are usually easily observable congestion, contamination, security- and safety-related costs, mobility, delay time costs, etc.
However, these costs are usually left unaccounted because of the difficulty of quantifying them Kumares and Labi, For example, traffic jams in metropolitan areas constitute a serious challenge for the competitiveness of European industry: In addition to these easily observable costs, many others might be considered.
In this scenario, it becomes evident that new methods must be developed to support the decision-making process so that optimal or quasi-optimal strategies can be chosen in road transportation.
This 1 16 1. Recent advances on Information and Communications Technologies ICT such as the growing use of GPS and smart-phone devices, Internet-scale distributed systems, and Internet computing technologies, open new possibilities for optimizing the planning process of road transportation Orozco, Road-transportation optimization cost-saving issues are especially critical in the case of Small and Medium Enterprises SMEsince they are rarely able to obtain the economic and human resources required to implement, maintain, and manage efficient routing-optimization methods.
Similarly, those companies have difficulties to access the appropriate technologies e. In this context, the goal of the so-called Vehicle Routing Problem VRP is to optimize the routing design distribution process from depots to customers in such a way that customers demand of goods is satisfied without violating any problem-specific constraint e.
The VRP has many variants depending on the parameters and constraints considered. The CVRP assumes the existence of a homogeneous fleet same capacity for all vehicles and a central storehouse. It also assumes that customers demands are given in advance. This implies that, in practice, it will not be possible to guarantee the mathematically optimal solution except in the case of small problems with no more than 75 customers.Archived threads in /g/ - Technology - page This is a blue board which means that it's for everybody (Safe For Work content only).
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art and entertainment; books and literature; Randomized Algorithms for Rich Vehicle Routing +. This report can be found from time to time, but seldom with the important maps, particularly the superb large-scale folding map, which delineates in the Rio Grande from its mouth to the Big Bend region, with portions of Texas, Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, and Tamaulipas.
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