Hundreds of African Americans were joining the Nation of Islam every month. All four African-American men were arrested.
In other words, they turn away from their small myopic view of the world and move towards a broad, overall view or perspective on an issue or problem. At the core of transformative learning is a change in perspective or frame of reference.
For example, my point of view on gender-related issues was altered when, in the summer ofI registered for a Woman Studies course—not because I was particularly interested in the content of the course—but because I needed to fulfill a humanities requirement for graduation.
As Malcolm xs change in the story prison studies year old male college junior, I was not prepared for how the course would challenge my own attitudes and beliefs about the intersections of race, gender and class.
The course, taught by lesbian poet Minnie Bruce Pratt, reflected on issues around gender, but also involved some kind of organizing activity where students would go out and pursue social change. In that sense, my Women Studies course approached transformational learning as a social emancipatory endeavor where I could critically reflect and develop strategies to challenge oppressive power structures around race, gender and class.
Moreover, my professor, through the use of dialogue and through problem solving, helped us to realize that we do not just have to sit back passively and accept what is, but that we can change the world by participating in hopeful solutions.
Her demonstration of the teacher-student and student-teacher relationship was on full display as she shared her own story of how she as a white southern woman was used as a pawn in the lynching of black men.
Her willingness to share her own story undoubtedly liberated us to share our own.
They included the following tenets: The difference between my experience with transformational learning and the psychocritical view of transformational learning theory espoused by Jack Mesirow is that my bout with it placed an emphasis on social change rather than individual transformation.
In other words, my experience was particularly Freirian because I not only had to reflect on issues around race, gender and class, but I had to act on them in some way.
So while Freire does agree with Mezirow that critical reflection is an important part of the transformational learning process, he sees its purpose based on a rediscovery of power such that the more critically aware adult learners become, the more they are able to transform society and subsequently their own reality.
Freire, in his work in literary education, contributed three key concepts to adult education. First of all, he thinks it is not transformative for teachers to give students knowledge and have students memorize it.
He suggests that students have something to give back and this kind of memorizing and regurgitating does not work in adult education because students have something to contribute to the learning environment.
The second step is critical reflection and the third step is a power-balanced student-teacher relationships. In other words, the student and teacher work on the same level. There exists a real partnership between student-teacher and teacher-student.
Using this idea to create an environment that people feel comfortable to share and communicate in, is especially important in adult education. In addition, Freire argues that education is a political act that cannot be divorced from pedagogy.
Freire defined this as a main tenet of critical pedagogy. Teachers and students must be made aware of the "politics" that surround education. The way students are taught and what they are taught serves a political agenda.
Teachers however uncomfortable it might be for some of them sometimes have political notions that they bring into the classroom.
He insists that "it transforms students into receiving objects. It attempts to control thinking and action, and leads men and women to adjust to the world, and inhibits their creative power" To demonstrate his point, Freire uses economic and capitalist terms to illustrate the cold and impersonal nature of the "banking" concept of education.
His stark description of students as objects or "receptacles" to be filled illustrates how this model of education is dehumanizing and oppressive. Instead of encouraging students to focus on social issues that have implications for their lives, the teacher-student relationship maintains the status-quo.
It certainly is not transformative because the banking model does not set up the kind of dialogue between students-teachers where students can ask questions and create meaning for their own lives, a key component of transformative learning.
Also, a culture of silence can cause the dominated individuals to lose the means by which to critically respond to the culture that is forced on them by a dominant culture.
Furthermore, this culture of silence, Freire suggests, is embedded into the conventional educational system and eliminates paths of critical examination for the oppressed.
Nowhere is this culture of silence so easily demonstrated as it is in the early life of the late African American muslim minister and human rights activist Malcolm X.
In his autobiography, it is clear that Malcolm X is a bright, proud, and confident student. In the eighth grade, he gets top grades and shares a competition with another boy and a girl. When Malcolm X tells his teacher he has been thinking about being a lawyer, his teacher tells him: In other words, Malcolm X internalizes a culture of silence.
Instead of challenging the oppressive and dominant culture that stifles his dreams and aspirations, he is silenced and muffled by it. Thus, Malcolm X learns that society and his teacher have low expectations for blacks. Slowly but surely, he begins to know his personal and social reality.
Instead rather it was a condemnation of an entire race. After this incident with his teacher, Malcolm X comes to know, at least in part, the impact of racism on his social and political reality, but he does not take any action to change it. Malcolm X reflects on it, but instead of acting on it in a positive way, he drops out of school in the eighth grade.
At age 20, Malcolm X is sent to prison for larceny and breaking and entering.Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, in Omaha, Nebraska. His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family’s eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey.
The Autobiography of Malcolm X; Study Questions; The Autobiography of Malcolm X by: Malcolm X & Alex Haley How does Malcolm X’s understanding of racial identity change over the course of his life?
Consider the different phases of Malcolm’s life. After years of study in prison, Malcolm reconsiders his racial identity in the light of. A summary of Themes in Malcolm X & Alex Haley's The Autobiography of Malcolm X.
Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of The Autobiography of Malcolm X and what it means.
The teachings of the Nation of Islam that he receives in prison effect a further change in both Malcolm’s character and his view of white .
• Malcolm is released from prison after six years (instead of eight to ten) and meets Elijah Muhammad in Chicago. It is here that he receives the legendary 'X' from the Nation of Islam. • The FBI opens a Malcolm, named after Malcolm X.
Malcolm X is a fascinating person to approach as an educational thinker – not because he was an academic or had any scholastic achievements but as an example of what can be achieved by someone engages in ‘homemade’ or self-education.
The Autobiography of Malcolm X is the remarkable true story of an African-American man’s rise—from street hustler, dope peddler, and thief—to one of the most dynamic and influential African.