Portion of the Temple Scrollone of the Dead Sea Scrollswritten during the Second Temple period With successive Persian rulethe autonomous province Yehud Medinata was gradually developing back into urban society, largely dominated by Judeans.
Es Skhul cave Between 2. The oldest evidence of early humans in the territory of modern Israel, dating to 1.
Other groups include 1. The oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans found outside Africa are the Skhul and Qafzeh hominidswho lived in northern Israelyears ago.
While alternative translations exist, the majority of biblical archaeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," representing the first instance of the name in the historical record.
Dever sees this "Israel" in the central highlands as a cultural and probably political entity, more an ethnic group rather than an organized state. This evolved into the Phoenician alphabet from which all modern alphabetical writing systems are descended.
The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet was one of the first to develop and evidence of its use exists from about BCE  see the Gezer calendarthe language spoken was probably Biblical Hebrew.
Monotheismthe belief in a single all-powerful law-giving God is thought to have evolved among the Hebrew speakers gradually, over the next few centuries, from a number of separate cults,  leading to the first versions of the religion now known as Judaism.
The Phillistines were Greek refugee-settlers who inhabited the southern Levantine coast. Standard Biblical chronology suggests that around BCE, following the death of Solomon, the kingdom split into a southern Kingdom of Judah and a northern Kingdom of Israel.
The Bible's Books of Kings state that soon after the split Pharoh " Shishaq " invaded the country plundering Jerusalem. Jehuson of Omri, is referenced by Assyrian records now in the British Museum.
Modern archaeological findings show that Omri's capital city, Samariawas large and Finkelstein has suggested that the Biblical account of David and Solomon are an attempt by later Judean rulers to ascribe Israel's successes to their dynasty. This is not included in the Bible which describes conflict between Ahab and Ben Hadad.
The Assyrians sent most of the population of the northern Israelite kingdom into exilethus creating the " Lost Tribes of Israel ". The Samaritans claim to be descended from survivors of the Assyrian conquest. Modern scholars believe that refugees from the destruction of Israel moved to Judah, massively expanding Jerusalem and leading to construction of the Siloam Tunnel during the rule of King Hezekiah ruled — BCE.
Sargon's son, Sennacheribtried and failed to conquer Judah, during Hezekiah's reign. Assyrian records say that Sennacherib levelled 46 walled cities and besieged Jerusalemleaving after receiving extensive tribute.
The Bible also refers to tribute,  and suggests that Hezekiah was also aided by Taharqaking of Kush Nubiain repulsing the Assyrians. The Book of Joshua and the accounts of the kingship of David and Solomon in the book of Kings are believed to have the same author.
The books are known as Deuteronomist and considered to be a key step in the emergence of Monotheism in Judah. They emerged at a time that Assyria was weakened by the emergence of Babylon and may be a committing to text of pre-writing verbal traditions.
The Phillistines were also driven into exile. The defeat of Judah was recorded by the Babylonians   see the Babylonian Chronicles.Creation of Israel, On May 14, , David Ben-Gurion, the head of the Jewish Agency, proclaimed the establishment of the State of Israel.
Creation of Israel, On May 14, , David Ben-Gurion, the head of the Jewish Agency, proclaimed the establishment of the State of Israel. U.S. President Harry S.
Truman recognized the new nation on the same day. Discusses the importance of the land of Israel to Judaism, the rise of Zionism and the formation of the state of Israel. Oct 26, · In sum, the popular claim that the U.N.
“created” Israel is a myth, and Israel’s own claim in its founding document that U.N. Resolution constituted legal authority for Israel’s creation, or otherwise constituted “recognition” by the U.N.
of the “right” of the Zionist Jews to expropriate for themselves Arab land and deny to Reviews: Longtime advocate of Zionism in Britain Chaim Weizmann () became Israel's first president. On May 15, the United States recognized the State of Israel and the Soviet Union soon followed suit.
The fledgling State of Israel was faced with many challenges. The correct chronological sequence of the formation of the state of Israel is: Balfour Declaration, British Mandate, Holocaust, Israel independence.5/5(2).