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Entering and Contracting This initial phase is a necessary part of every consulting project, although the process and formality vary considerably, depending on the situation.
These initial steps involve a preliminary exploration of the organization's problems and issues, plus developing a collaborative relationship between the consultant and key members of the client organization regarding how to work on those issues.
Entering and contracting are quite different for an external consultant who is completely new to the organization than for a consultant who is internal or has a previous history with the organization.
There are both advantages and disadvantages to being an internal or external consultant.
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In major projects, it often is useful to involve both in a team. Some of the issues in almost all cases are: What is the presenting problem and how do you honor this while determining what are the real organizational problems and issues?
How do you deal with a predetermined diagnosis and specified "solution" which may not be what is needed? Who is the client and how do you deal with the multiplicity of stakeholders? How much readiness for change is present and how can a satisfactory degree be developed? Dealing with confidentiality vs.
Contracting should include developing shared clarity about: Goals for and scope of the consulting project Anticipated results and mutual expectations Operating ground rules Role of the consultant Responsibilities of both consultant and client Point of contact who in the organization makes decisions about the project and is the primary interface for the consultant Schedule Resources, fees, and arrangements for payment Termination procedures Some potential "red flags" in the consultant-client relationship that may arise during entry and contracting include: Insufficient or ambiguous level of commitment to change Resistance or opposition by major stakeholders Major clients lack power to influence change or manage the boundaries to allow change within their organization Client's desire to manipulate the consultant or use the consultant in ways that violate the latter's ethical framework Diagnosis It is important for the consultant to obtain current relevant data about the organization and to develop a diagnosis of the organization's functioning and major issues.
However, the scope and process for the data gathering and diagnosis may have to vary considerably for different projects. Fundamentally, a diagnosis is a description of how the organization is currently functioning, particularly what is not functioning well, that provides the information necessary to design change interventions.
Be based on current, relevant data Result from joint involvement of both consultant and client s Make use of appropriate models of organizational functioning and dysfunctioning although all are simplified approximations of reality Deal with feelings in the client system e.
Focus on key, underlying problems Energize the client to act in ways to improve the organization There are many methods of data collection, each with different advantages and disadvantages.
For modest-sized teams, the most common methods are individual interviews and direct observations of meetings and other interactions. For larger organizations, questionnaires and surveys may be necessary and useful. All of these differ in richness, efficiency, flexibility, validity, opportunity to establish rapport, etc.
In analyzing data, it is important to look for: Similarities and differences in the understandings and perceptions of various individuals, especially about goals and roles Variance differences between public and private talk about important issues - issues that are "off-limits" or "undiscussible" Distinguish between symptoms and causes Be selective in identifying the most important critical issues for attention It is vital to provide appropriate feedback of data to those who participate in providing it to: A separate note classifies some of the major options in terms of their primary target organizational level and focus aspect or process within the organization that needs improvement.
A few important considerations are: It is vital to create ways to monitor and reinforce the planned changes until they become stabilized and part of the organization's culture. Major organization changes tend to take years to complete and stabilize, rather than the initial few weeks or months in which the more visible changes may seem to occur.
Also, it is important for all concerned - consultant and client system - to evaluate and learn from the actions and changes that have been made. Too often both dash on to their next projects and fail to analyze and distill learnings from the previous project.
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managers don’t like standardized steps, prepackaged OD programs and clear time and cost boundaries c. OD practitioners have their favorite techniques that they over prescribe d.
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Model of the Organization Development Process Rex C. Mitchell, Ph.D. There are many versions of an overall model of the organization development process in the literature; however, all are basically variations on the model outlined below.
A Guide to all Things Organisation Development. Organisation Development (OD) is a growing field of Human Resource Management. It has its foundations in a number of behavioural and social sciences. OD practitioners are unashamedly humanistic in their approach to change management and delivering sustainable organisational performance..
Very often organisations invest heavily in transformational. Entry begins the relationship between consultant and client organization, testing the fit of consultant’s skills and values with the organization’s needs. Contracting continues the process of clarifying the expectations of the consultation efforts (goals, etc.) and desired characteristics of .